PART TWO OF THREE
You have learned a little about capturing the perfect light for your photos. Now it is time to get into the nitty gritty on how to make your camera capture that perfect image. We need to understand the below:
What is exposure?
Exposure is the creative decision that controls the mood and feel of the image. It is a combination of all the elements so your camera can create what it is you are seeing. To create this, the camera is using aperture, shutter speed and ISO. It uses these three things only in order to make the image appear as you want it. These three elements need to be balance for this to occur.
What is aperture?
Aperture is what controls the size of the hole that allows light into the camera. It is known as the ‘F-Stop’. The aperture determines the depth of field (how much is in focus in front of and behind the main subject).
A small F number = a big hole of light.
A large F number = a small hole of light.
A large hole of light (small F number) is confusing for the camera. It allows light to enter the camera from all different angles, providing the camera with a lot of information. This is a great setting if you wish to blur the background of an image. You can focus on what you want.
A pin hole of light (large F number) creates sharpness and you have more control over the depth of field for the foreground and background.
F.32 is often the smallest aperture. This is great for if you are wanting to see everything in a row, for example, looking down a hallway, and wanting everything in focus. It is great for scenery and provides depth for landscapes.
Depth of field = smaller aperture (bigger F number).
Start the day at F4.5 and adjust as needed.
F.11 – F.16 is great for landscapes that you want in full focus. It will provide a front, middle and background.
Cheats: the landscape or ‘mountains’ icon on your camera, provides a greater depth of field. The portrait icon will blur the background of a closer subject.
What is Shutter Speed?
Shutter speed is how long light is allowed into the camera. It can stop or blur motion.
A short/fast shutter speed (1/250) stops motion e.g. if you were to shoot flowing water, it would stop the motion of the water.
A slow shutter speed (allowing more light in such as 1/15), blurs motion e.g. if you wanted the effect of a veil of a waterfall. This setting will also blur part of an image, for example if you have a still person with a moving object.
Cheats: The running man icon or pets and kids icon will stop motion.
What is ISO?
ISO is the creative control. It is the sensitivity of the camera. A higher ISO allows you to shoot in darker conditions, but the image often becomes granulated – this pixilation is known as ‘noise’.
The rule with ISO, is to choose the lowest ISO for your situation. Generally 100 or 200.
From here, you then increase the ISO if you are using faster shutter speeds or if you are shooting in low light situations.
A higher ISO is useful when you cannot use flash e.g. in museums.
This category of tours involves light trekking, walking, cycling, rafting or kayaking for a few hours each day with a small amount of inclines and declines. You will require a reasonable level of fitness and good health to participate. It is important to note that due to the nature of some of our trips, they may take place in remote areas (with basic facilities) and can involve long travelling days on various modes of transport.
Suggested preparation : At least 3 months prior to departure, it is recommended that you undertake aerobic exercise (this may include jogging, cycling or fast walking) for 30 minutes, three times a week. It is also advised to walk on variable terrain and in variable weather conditions. For a cycling adventure, road cycling twice a week is recommended and for adventures which involve paddling and kayaking, it is important to gain confidence and rhythm rather than speed prior to departure.
This category of tours involve trekking, kayaking and cycling for period of 6 to 8 hours a day at a fairly consistent pace. Ideal for people looking to slightly increase the heart rate. For our moderately rated tours, you must have a good level of fitness and also be in good health. It is also important to be prepared for variable weather conditions. Altitude may also come into play. This category of tours may involve visiting remote areas where facilities can be quite basic. Accommodation may also involve camping, homestays or basic accommodation where facilities may not be considered of western standards. To enjoy this style of travel, it is suggested for travellers to have a reasonable level of fitness and health, a positive attitude, as well as a fairly active lifestyle. An open mind is also required.
Suggested preparation: At least 3 months prior to departure, it is recommended that you undertake 45mins – 1 hour of aerobic exercise, three to four times a week. Some potential exercises that could be beneficial include hill walking with a backpack on over variable terrain and weather conditions, as well as running and cycling dependent on the activity you plan on undertaking.
This category of tours involves trekking, kayaking, cycling or other adventure activities in remote areas for up to 8 to 10 hours a day. It is important to note that with the remoteness of some regions comes a variety of other challenges such as variable weather conditions, accommodation as well as facilities. You must have an excellent level of fitness and good health to be able to partake in this category of tour. You must have confidence in your own ability and be in good physical condition. Includes extended periods of endurance.
Suggested preparation: At least 3 to 4 months of strenuous exercise, four times a week. When preparing for treks it would be beneficial to participate in hill walks with a weighted day pack (approximately 5-8 kg) once a week for aerobic fitness and strengthening of leg muscles. It is also important to do this on variable terrain to prepare for challenging adventures. When preparing for cycling adventures, regular bike riding (at least 4 to 5 times a week for 1-4 hours is essential). It is also important to cycle on uneven surfaces or even participate in other aerobic exercises such as running or swimming to build up strength and stamina. Altitude may also be a factor in these tours.
This category of tour often involves extreme trekking, cycling or other extreme adventure activities. It is important to expect remote and poorly defined tracks and to be prepared for variable weather conditions for 10 to 12 hours per day (may sometimes be more depending on weather and altitude). These adventures are suitable for travellers who have prior experience in strenuous travel and activities, are extremely fit and have excellent health. It is also important to note that some of the terrain on these adventures will involve trekking in snow, at high attitude levels and may require technical equipment.
Suggested preparation: It is important to note that physical fitness should be an ongoing activity, commencing around 5-6 months prior to departure, or even before if you have no prior fitness. Exercise should focus on building maximum endurance and stamina. Four to five hard sessions of 40-60 mins per week should be completed and can include exercises such as going to the gym, running, swimming or cycling to focus on building aerobic stamina. It could also be beneficial to prepare by hiking on rough terrain, in extreme weather conditions or partake in altitude training.