Photography Tips Part Two


You have learned a little about capturing the perfect light for your photos. Now it is time to get into the nitty gritty on how to make your camera capture that perfect image. We need to understand the below:

What is exposure?

Exposure is the creative decision that controls the mood and feel of the image. It is a combination of all the elements so your camera can create what it is you are seeing. To create this, the camera is using aperture, shutter speed and ISO. It uses these three things only in order to make the image appear as you want it. These three elements need to be balance for this to occur.

What is aperture?

Aperture is what controls the size of the hole that allows light into the camera. It is known as the ‘F-Stop’.  The aperture determines the depth of field (how much is in focus in front of and behind the main subject).

A small F number = a big hole of light.

A large F number = a small hole of light.

A large hole of light (small F number) is confusing for the camera. It allows light to enter the camera from all different angles, providing the camera with a lot of information. This is a great setting if you wish to blur the background of an image. You can focus on what you want.

A pin hole of light (large F number) creates sharpness and you have more control over the depth of field for the foreground and background.

F.32 is often the smallest aperture. This is great for if you are wanting to see everything in a row, for example, looking down a hallway, and wanting everything in focus. It is great for scenery and provides depth for landscapes.

Depth of field = smaller aperture (bigger F number).

Start the day at F4.5 and adjust as needed.

F.11 – F.16 is great for landscapes that you want in full focus. It will provide a front, middle and background.

Cheats: the landscape or ‘mountains’ icon on your camera, provides a greater depth of field. The portrait icon will blur the background of a closer subject.

What is Shutter Speed?

Shutter speed is how long light is allowed into the camera. It can stop or blur motion.

A short/fast shutter speed  (1/250) stops motion e.g. if you were to shoot flowing water, it would stop the motion of the water.

A slow shutter speed (allowing more light in such as 1/15), blurs motion e.g. if you wanted the effect of a veil of a waterfall. This setting will also blur part of an image, for example if you have a still person with a moving object.

Cheats: The running man icon or pets and kids icon will stop motion.

What is ISO?

ISO is the creative control. It is the sensitivity of the camera. A higher ISO allows you to shoot in darker conditions, but the image often becomes granulated – this pixilation is known as ‘noise’.

The rule with ISO, is to choose the lowest ISO for your situation. Generally 100 or 200.

From here, you then increase the ISO if you are using faster shutter speeds or if you are shooting in low light situations.

A higher ISO is useful when you cannot use flash e.g. in museums.